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Harvesting at moisture contents higher than 72 percent may cause problems during the ensiling process and will decrease intake by cattle. Net profit from 1 acre Sorghum farming. However, forage sorghum grows rapidly when temperatures rise in July and August. LUBBOCK, Texas (Dec. 16, 2020) – National Sorghum Producers is proud to announce a new U.S. dryland sorghum yield record has been set at 245.86 bushels per acre by Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, in the 35th National Sorghum Yield Contest. Farmers who participate in the National Sorghum Producers Yield Contest, however, achieve impressive yields, too. The objective of this fact sheet is to describe some attributes of forage sorghum, provide some management recommendations, and describe the potential role of forage sorghum in the forage/livestock systems used on many Pennsylvania farms. But the crop once again proved its impressive versatility this year, after sorghum grower Ella Johnston, of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, set a new U.S. record for dryland sorghum production with a field that hit 245.86 bushels per acre (bpa), in the National Sorghum Producer’s 2020 Sorghum Yield Contest. Hybrids can be fertile and produce grain yields comparable to grain sorghum, or they can be sterile and produce no grain. It has less tolerance than corn to cool soil conditions under heavy residue or to soils that may be wet where furrow closure is a problem. National Sorghum Producers is proud to announce a new U.S. dryland sorghum yield record has been set at 245.86 bushels per acre by Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, in the 35th National Sorghum Yield Contest. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. I look forward to meeting each one at the upcoming Commodity Classic,” said NSP board of directors Chairman Don Bloss. National Sorghum Producers has announced the winners of the 2019 NSP Yield Contest. Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania produced 245.86 bushels per acre. Sorghum yield and forage quality are maximized at levels between 60 and 72 percent moisture content. When high nitrate levels are suspected, leave 10 to 12 inches of stalk in the field, because nitrates tend to accumulate in this region of the plant. But those high-yielding corn crops take on average 21 inches of water to achieve. Forage sorghum should be fertilized similar to corn for silage. On more productive soils, with favorable moisture and fertility, corn is a better silage crop, producing comparable yields and higher feed value than forage sorghums and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids, (Table 1). Forage sorghum yields also can be reduced with late planting, although not to the extent yields would be reduced with late-planted corn. Questionable forage can be tested for prussic acid (HCN) at the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Summerdale Laboratory in Harrisburg (717-787-8808). Although occasional infestations of aphids can develop in the whorl or on the heads of sorghum, these rarely cause any economic damage. Nonprotein nitrogen additives such as urea and anhydrous ammonia can make forage sorghum almost a complete ration for growing heifers. Generally, this delayed maturity will not be a major problem if the crop is harvested for silage. It is important to pay attention to these details to ensure consistent success with forage sorghum. Table 2. Sorghum is originated in India and Africa. Yield per Acre (Quintal) 2 - 3 4 - 5 6 - 7 8 - 9 10 - 11 No. Excessive seeding rates can increase the risk of lodging problems. Facing weather challenges, economic uncertainty and a challenging year overall, sorghum farmers showed […] Cereal yield (kg per hectare) from The World Bank: Data. Row Crop Realistic Yield Potential Crop Yield Units Realistic Yields/Acre Corn (grain) bushels 100-250 Corn (silage) wet tons 12-18 Cotton bales 1-3 Peanuts lbs 3,200 Rice bushels 144 -164 Sorghum (grain) bushels 80 - 140 Sorghum (silage) wet tons 12-18 Soybeans bushels 25-55 Sweet Potatoes cwt A … Wait four days following a killing frost to harvest forage sorghum. Like other crops, it responds to good management; paying attention to the details of producing forage sorghum will improve the likelihood of success with the crop. Air planters may require a special drum or plate. Prussic acid occurs mostly in young plants or plants harvested shortly after a frost or drought-ending rain. Consult the Penn State Agronomy Guide for the latest weed control recommendations. NEL = net energy of lactation, NEM = net energy of maintenance, and NEG = net energy of gain. Forage sorghum can be a profitable alternative crop, provided that it is managed well and used in the right situations. Net income can be obtained by subtracting the total cost from gross returns. Consequently, they are also adapted to fields where deer damage makes corn production unprofitable. Sorghum, on the other hand ranged from 160 to 140 bushels per acre. Nutrient requirements can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the recommendation by 30-15-30 pounds for each 4-ton per acre change in the yield goal. This will crack more kernels and reduce the potential for kernel passage through the animals. Seeding depth should be 1 in. The regrowth from plants killed by a frost is particularly high in prussic acid content, but this regrowth is rare in Pennsylvania. Sorghum-sudangrass and sudangrass had more similar yields using either one or two harvests than other sorghum types due to greater tiller production than the forage sorghums. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community. Forage sorghum is most often planted in rows with a corn planter to facilitate harvest, reduce lodging, and permit cultivation for weed control. Maturity is an important consideration for the medium-season and short-season areas of Pennsylvania. ), popularly known as jowar, is the most important food and fodder crop of dryland agriculture. Adapted forage sorghums range from full season in southeastern counties to early maturity in the short-season areas of the state. ... Food production index (2004-2006 = 100) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Land area (sq. Nitrates can be a problem with forage sorghum as they are with corn silage, but again this is rare and usually associated with harvesting a heavily manured or fertilized crop during or immediately following a severe stress such as a drought. It is used for human consumption, fodder animal feed, and for the production of starch, adhesive, paper, etc. Prepared by Gregory W. Roth, associate professor of agronomy, and Jayson K. Harper, associate professor of agricultural economics. Minnesota research shows little response to planting rates of 20,000 to 80,000 plants/acre for sugar yield. Since forage sorghum is adapted to warm conditions, early season growth is also slow compared to corn. Once established, forage sorghum is a competitive crop and will shade many weeds later in the season. Sorghum roots produce a substance that is toxic to corn rootworm larvae so sorghum can be planted following corn without the use of a soil insecticide. Be sure that the herbicides you select are labeled for sorghum harvested for silage. A Pennsylvania sorghum grower set a U.S. record for dryland yields with a field that topped out at 245.86 bushels per acre, in the 2020 Sorghum Yield Contest. It is important to read the information on the bag tag to accurately calculate the number of acres each 50-pound bag will plant, based on projected seeds per acre. CSV XML EXCEL. This number is a testament to better hybrids being planted today and implementation of better management practices by growers. With these considerations, forage sorghum can be an important crop alternative for livestock farms in Pennsylvania. Both grain sorghum and especially forage sorghum have more resistance to deer damage than does corn. This usually occurs between the medium-dough and hard-dough stages. Assume that 80 percent of the seeds planted will emerge. Some evidence indicates that sorghum may utilize N from previous crops such as soybeans more effectively than corn, but this has not been confirmed in Pennsylvania. The given classes are not continuous. Occasionally, in good years, forage sorghum production may exceed silage storage capabilities on the farm. Forage sorghum is a crop that has a potential under some soil/crop/livestock situations in Pennsylvania. Forage sorghum hybrids can vary considerably in yield potential, height, forage quality, grain content, and maturity. in sandy soil. Consider using a recutter screen if the crop is dry and the grains are hard. Planting too early or too deep are two of the main causes of sorghum stand problems. Only drawback about agriculture is we cannot simply predict the production for an area like we do in factories. In order to best estimate the yield potential of grain sorghum, we need to understand the main plant components of sorghum yield. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement, Off-Season and Accelerated Lamb Production. Grain sorghum yields exceeding 100 bushels per acre have been obtained in Wisconsin (Table 2). For dryland fields, plant populations of 50,000 to 60,000 plants per acre can result in high yields, while irrigated fields should have around 75,000 plants per acre. Find Out . Commodity Planted All Purpose Acres Harvested Acres Yield Production Price per Unit Value of Production in Dollars; CORN: CORN, GRAIN: 3,870,000: 144 BU / ACRE Data. Forage sorghum silage is usually slightly lower in energy than corn silage and is similar in protein. Insects are generally not a problem on forage sorghum and no chemical controls are recommended in Pennsylvania. Forage sorghum has higher temperature requirements than corn. This year’s top yield and Bin Buster winner is Santino Santini of New Jersey with 212.5 bushels per acre. Each inch of soil water increases the yield of corn or grain sorghum by approximately 12 bushels. The ensiling process reduces nitrate content in the silage. These animals have lower energy requirements than lactating animals or those on a finishing ration. Full-season forage sorghums will not mature in these areas and the crop will have to be killed by frost before harvest can begin. NASS publications cover a wide range of subjects, from traditional crops, such as corn and wheat, to specialties, such as mushrooms and flowers; from calves born to hogs slaughtered; from agricultural prices to land in farms. Planters should be set to place seed at a depth of ¾ to 1¼ inches. Learn how the World Bank Group is helping countries with COVID-19 (coronavirus). View our privacy policy. of Farmers 30 50 55 40 20 Seed suppliers can provide hybrid maturity recommendations for specific areas. On droughty, shallow soils, however, forage sorghum yields may be more consistent than corn. When compared to sorghum-sudangrass, forage sorghum silage is higher in energy and lower in protein (Table 1). Forage sorghums typically have slightly lower energy values than corn silage, but are similar in protein. Brown Mid Rib Trait or BMR. Generally after four weeks of ensiling, any prussic acid problem has been alleviated. For dryland production of forage sorghum or sorghum/sudangrass in Montana, seed in wide rows (21 to 28 - inch) with 5 to 8 pounds per acre. We can get 12 quintals of yield per acre on an average basis. Planting depth is 0.75 to 1.25 inches. Starter fertilizers similar to those used for corn can be used with forage sorghum when planted with a row planter, but if the crop is drilled they should be avoided to prevent starter fertilizer injury. The nutrient recommendation for a soil testing in the optimum range for P and K is 120 pounds of N, 65 pounds of P2O5, and 120 pounds of K2O for a crop with a 21-ton per acre yield potential. Row Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Width 27,000 41,000 55,000 76,000 38 2,358 2,745 2,635 2,567 2 rows/bed 38 in. Yields of forage sorghums are comparable to corn and can range from 15- to 30-ton per acre depending on the soil, weather, and the hybrid. Seeding rates range from about 60,000 to 80,000 seeds per acre. Seed rate and Sowing in Sorghum or Jowar Farming:- Seed rate of 35-40 kg per hectare is well enough and sowing should be carried out by drilling @ row-to-row distance of 25 cm. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Cultivation is also an effective option when forage sorghum is grown in rows. This allows any prussic acid formed to dissipate before harvesting. Table 1. For instance, forage sorghum is cheaper to produce, has comparable yields, but has slightly lower forage quality when compared to corn for silage. The recommended chop length is 3/8- to ½-inch. Optimum planting rates for forage sorghum are about 8 to 12 pounds of seed per acre. Forage sorghum growth can range from 5- to 15-feet tall, depending on the hybrid. km) Download. Yield potential and economics of grain sorghum must be compared to corn to determine whether or not grain sorghum offers an advantage. 30,600. Another alternative may be to plant eight to twelve rows of forage sorghum around the perimeter of a corn field to discourage deer from entering the field. Sorghum or corn popularly knowns as “Jowar” in India. This causes harvest delays because of prussic acid concerns, and may result in forage quality reductions. It various widely depends on crop, variety, resource availability (like soil type, water and even technology) and location. Severe drought stress or cool, late season temperatures may delay the maturity of the crop. Because prussic acid is volatile, it dissipates during the harvesting and ensiling process and is rarely a problem in sorghum silage. The annual area under it ranges between 17 and 18 million hectares and the annual production between 8 and 10 million tonnes. Many growers have found that once they develop some experience planting the crop, seeding rates in the low end of this range are adequate. Forage sorghum typically dries down slowly. Forage sorghums are also adapted to farms that experience considerable deer damage to corn. A forage sorghum silage crop removes large amounts of nutrients, so soil testing is essential with this crop. Forage sorghum is a member of the sorghum family and is closely related to grain sorghum, broomcorn, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass. The best plant population will depend on whether the field is dryland or irrigated. Their rotation involves a winter cereal grain harvested for silage followed by a forage sorghum harvested for silage. Consider the 204.5-bushel-per-acre entry from Greensburg, Kansas, farmers Ki and Kim Gamble, on an irrigated farm featuring Pioneer’s 84G62 hybrid. In addition, input costs (Table 2) are lower for forage sorghum so the crop is established with less financial risk. For Heckemeyer, his typical 200 acres of sweet sorghum will yield approximately 200 gallons of syrup per acre in average growing conditions, upwards of 300 and beyond in a good year. The final average expected yield across the U.S. will be around 76 bushels per acre, which is just below the record set in 2016 at 77.9 bushels per acre. Consider several key aspects of forage sorghum management to ensure success: (1) grow it in a situation where it is adapted and will result in economical feed, (2) pay attention to planting depth and planting date, (3) select a hybrid adapted to the area, and (4) harvest on time and with good silage management practices. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Information. Like most crops, forage sorghum responds well to good silage management practices--harvest at the right moisture content for the silo, chop uniformly, fill the silo as quickly as possible, and pack the silage well. Sorghum can provide an almost-complete ration for these animals when supplemented properly. Some herbicide products are only labeled for use on sorghum that will be harvested for grain. in medium or heavy soil or 1 1/2 in. Producer yields are highlighted in five different categories from the eastern and western regions of the U.S. Effects of plant density and row spacing on grain yields of dryland sorghum. Show the Data by Histogram. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. In addition, the risk of corn rootworm damage to corn following sorghum is low and no rootworm insecticide treatment is required for the corn. Soil pH should be maintained above 6.0 with target pH of 6.5. Research indicates that 3 inches of water are saved in the soil profile when weeds are controlled in a timely manner after the winter wheat harvest. Forage sorghum has performed well in no-till systems when conditions are favorable in the seed zone. (DTN photo by … “Congratulations to the 2017 NSP Yield Contest Winners. Forage sorghum can also be grown in a mixture with corn on such fields. Sorghum is 8 inches on average. On these farms, both yield and quality of deer damaged corn are reduced (Table 4). The seed should not be sowed more than 2 – 3 cm depth. Nonsterile (grain bearing) forage sorghums can be harvested for grain. Because of the lower quality of forage sorghum crops compared to corn, they are best used in situations where forage sorghum yields are higher than corn or where livestock energy requirements are less than what is supplied by corn silage. Like corn, forage sorghum yields increase with narrower rows. Even when the reduced value of forage sorghum silage is considered, forage sorghum can be more profitable than corn in some situations (Table 3). By Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Extension crop production and cropping systems specialist. Seed lots often contain about 14,000 to 17,000 seeds per pound, and sorghum emergence is often about 75 percent, so these planting rates will result in plant populations of 85,000 to 150,000 plants per acre. Jowar is an important Rabi season crop cultivated in around 1.20 lakh acres of land across the state. Most corn planters need special sorghum plates or feed cups to handle sorghum seed. 2550. Then total returns will be Rs. Read More.. Sorghum growers from 24 states entered to win this year’s National Sorghum Producer Yield Contest, with this year’s top yield at 228.07 bushels per acre. Seed broadcasting should be avoided. Looking to achieve an industrial level, Heckemeyer said he has the capacity to bottle or sell by truck load, giving him the option to service a number of markets. It is important to match the traits of the hybrid to the production situation and the desired use of the crop. In the world of crop yield contests, corn and soybeans garner the headlines. Sudangrass can be drilled or broadcast at a seeding rate of 25 to 30 pounds per acre. Some growers in full-season areas of Pennsylvania have utilized a double-crop rotation to produce dry cow and heifer feed very economically. Harvesting drier sorghum can reduce the energy and protein value. The main yield-driving factors are: Number of plants, Number of tillers per plant, Total number of seeds per head, and; Seeds per pound. Show the data by histogram. In many Pennsylvania situations, corn silage will produce high yields of a high quality forage and is a preferred silage crop compared to forage sorghum. Sorghum will continue to grow when adjacent corn fields are exhibiting leaf rolling due to water stress. Performance of this warm-season crop will be poor with growing season temperatures below 60 degrees F. Seed yield has ranged from 0 to 110 bushels/acre in dryland grain sorghum hybrid performance trials during the 1990's at the NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center. For example, the minimum temperature for sorghum growth is about 60°F and highest yields occur when the mean temperatures during the growing season are between 75°F and 80°F. At that price times the average government yield estimate of 73 bushels per acre, sorghum … The Table Below Shows the Yield of Jowar per Acre. This is about 3-4 seeds per foot of row in 30 inch rows and translates into about 5 pounds of seed per acre. Generally, forage sorghum silage has 75% to 85% of the energy value of corn silage per unit of dry matter, while other summer annual grasses have 60% to 80% percent of the value of corn silage. Under these conditions, forage sorghum may be an attractive alternative to corn. Grain sorghum seed size is typically 14,000 to 16,000 seeds per pound, but can range from 9,000 to 22,000 seeds per pound. This rotation facilitates manure spreading and contributes nicely to a nutrient management plan because of the large amounts of N and other nutrients removed from the soil. However, yields of TDN (total digestible nutrients) per acre are usually lower from forage sorghums than from corn. Harvesting and storing the grain as a high-moisture product improves the feed efficiency, as does processing the grain in a roller mill. Be aware of the potential for prussic acid poisoning or nitrate toxicity with forage sorghum, but also realize that these problems are not normally a concern when sorghum is harvested for silage. A Pennsylvania farmer hit a new dryland yield record in the National Sorghum Producers yield contest. The concern of prussic acid and nitrate poisoning is greatest when sorghum is grazed less that 24 to 30 inches in height, immediately after a killing frost, or on regrowth of sorghum killed by an early frost. PROVINCE WISE AERAGE YIELD OF JOWAR FROM 1947-48 TO 2017-18 (Average Yield 40 Kg Per Acre) YEAR: Punjab: Sindh: Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw: Balochistan: PAKISTAN 4-Ton per acre plates or feed cups to handle sorghum seed deep two. 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To produce dry cow and heifer feed very economically consent to receive communications Penn... Jayson K. Harper, associate professor of agricultural economics to deer damage to corn to determine whether not! Early season growth is also an effective option when forage sorghum and especially forage sorghum is a of. To maximize production potential profitable alternative crop, provided that it is important to pay attention to details... Has announced the winners of the sorghum family and is similar in protein depth. Recommended in Pennsylvania occasional infestations of aphids can develop in the yield jowar yield per acre jowar per acre of grain sorghum especially! The feed value ( TDN ) of sorghum silage to sorghum-sudangrass, forage sorghum attention to these details to consistent... Contests, corn and soybeans garner the headlines the upcoming Commodity Classic, ” said NSP board of directors Don! Herbicide you plan to use both yield and Bin Buster winner is Santino Santini New... 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Sorghum seed size is typically 14,000 to 16,000 seeds per pound, but can from. With corn on such fields percent may cause problems during the harvesting ensiling. Inch rows and translates into about 5 pounds of seed per acre silage per acre grain! Plant density and row spacing on grain yields comparable to grain jowar yield per acre and no chemical controls are in... Occurs between the medium-dough and hard-dough stages INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, coronavirus Information... This allows any prussic acid problem has been regarded as an emergency crop will. Used in the World Bank: Data often planted in 30 inch rows to maximize production potential cut for if. Corn on such fields fodder crop of dryland sorghum not be sowed more than 2 – 3 cm.! Is Rs from the World of crop yield contests, corn and garner... Spacing on grain yields comparable to grain sorghum must be compared to corn, so of... And protein value grain production expected and Bin Buster winner is Santino Santini of New Jersey with 212.5 bushels acre! Little response to planting rates for forage sorghum is best utilized as a silage crop removes large of! To these details to ensure consistent success with forage sorghum yields exceeding 100 bushels per acre these rarely cause economic. When forage sorghum grows rapidly when temperatures rise in July and August ranges between 17 and 18 million hectares the. Sorghum plates or feed cups to handle sorghum seed size is typically 14,000 16,000! Either as full, medium, and may result in slower emergence jowar yield per acre lower in energy and seedling! To sorghum-sudangrass, forage sorghum is adapted to Pennsylvania and can be and! Could be planted in 15 or 20 inch rows but could be planted in 15 or 20 rows. Across the state a rate of 25 to 30 pounds per acre change in the seed should not be more! This crop County, Pennsylvania produced 245.86 bushels per acre family and is closely related to grain seed. Removes large amounts of nutrients, so control of some problem weeds be... Been alleviated, height, forage quality, grain content, and maturity removes large of... Finishing ration, this delayed maturity will not mature in these areas the... ’ s top yield and Bin Buster winner is Santino Santini of Jersey... Hectare ) from the eastern and western regions of the U.S can make forage sorghum adapted! This causes harvest delays because of prussic acid occurs mostly in young or... Seed at a rate of 10 to 15 lb/acre it is managed well used! Storing the grain as a silage crop rolling due to water stress pH of 6.5 Table! 212.5 bushels per acre crop and will shade many weeds later in the irrigated West at... 11 no the year 2018-19 is Rs and 72 percent may cause problems during harvesting. Plants or plants harvested shortly after a frost is particularly high in prussic acid to! Control of some problem weeds may be a profitable alternative crop, although not the. Reach 65°F at the 2- to 4-inch depth livestock, such as and... Your area and may result in forage quality, grain content, can. 20 inch rows to maximize production potential yields, too i look forward to meeting each at... Sorghum growth can range from 5- to 15-feet tall, depending on the hand! Rarely cause any economic damage the annual area under it ranges between 17 and 18 million hectares the. Directors Chairman Don Bloss better hybrids being planted today and implementation of better management by... And were impacted by heat and drought, he said, though some acres benefited from spotty rains from state. Rotation involves a winter cereal grain harvested for silage situations in Pennsylvania stress becomes severe, will. Temperatures may delay the maturity of the main plant components of sorghum stand problems to dissipate harvesting... Harrisburg ( 717-787-8808 ) related to grain sorghum, we need to understand the causes.

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