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Buchanan's own continued prestige in his home state of Pennsylvania ensured that Breckinridge would be the principal Democratic candidate in that populous state. Douglas attained a 28 to 47% share in the states of the Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, and Trans-Mississippi West, but slipped to 19 to 39% in New England. Douglas, however, was an active campaigner, in both the North and the South, where he gave a passionate defense of the Union and strenuously opposed secession. He also ran for president against Lincoln in 1860. The presidential aspirations in the 1860 campaign of “Honest Abe,” Republican Abraham Lincoln, were not without periodic acerbic exchanges with his … Introduction. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? There was no mention of Mormonism (which had been condemned in the Party's 1856 platform), the Fugitive Slave Act, personal liberty laws, or the Dred Scott decision. The 1860 presidential election showed how deep the sectional chasm in the United States had grown. Yet it alienated Douglas with southerners he would need in 1860 when he ran for president against Lincoln. Its platform promised not to interfere with slavery in the Southern states but opposed the further extension of slavery into the Western territories. In a four-way contest, the Republican Party ticket of Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin emerged triumphant. He also was firmly opposed to nativism, which further weakened his position. Question: Who ran for president as a Republican in 1860? 1860: Elected president of the United States. Young politician Richard Oglesby had secretly found several fence rails from the Hanks-Lincoln farm that Lincoln may have split as a youngster, and paraded them into the convention with a banner that proclaimed Lincoln to be "The Rail Candidate" for President. Not all of the Douglas supporters agreed to the Reading slate deal and established a separate Douglas only ticket. The 1860 presidential election conventions were unusually tumultuous, due in particular to a split in the Democratic Party that led to rival conventions. William H. Seward from New York was considered the front-runner, followed by Salmon P. Chase from Ohio, and Missouri's Edward Bates. John McCain. The 1860 Constitutional Union Convention nominated a ticket led by former Senator John Bell of Tennessee. Unlike every preceding president-elect, Lincoln did not carry even one slave state. Photo of Abraham Lincoln taken in NYC in February of 1860 . [28], Lincoln received no votes at all in 121 of the state's then-145 counties (including 31 of the 50 that would form West Virginia), received a single vote in three counties and received ten or fewer votes in nine of the 24 counties where he polled votes. Missouri convened a secession convention, which voted against secession and adjourned permanently. [14] They met in the Eastside District Courthouse of Baltimore and nominated John Bell from Tennessee for president over Governor Sam Houston of Texas on the second ballot. Constitutional Unionist John Bell won 12.6 percent of the vote and 39 electoral votes. Anonymous. The second round eliminated most of the minor contenders, with votes switching to Seward or mostly to Lincoln. The 1860 election is regarded by most political observers as the first of three “critical” elections in the United States—contests that produced sharp and enduring changes in party loyalties across the country (although some analysts consider the election of 1824 to have been the first critical election). Bell won three Southern states, and Breckinridge swept the remainder of the South. Breckinridge received very little support in the free states, showing some strength only in California, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Connecticut. The keys to Lincoln’s victory in 1860 were his victories in Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Illinois, all part of the Ohio Valley region. Illinois attorney Abraham Lincoln's 1860 election to the presidency was the result of the nation's turmoil. Retrieved July 31, 2005. [26] In the 1856 election, the Republican candidate for president had received no votes at all in twelve of the fourteen slave states with a popular vote (these being the same states as in the 1860 election, plus Missouri and Virginia). Douglas won that election. Hancock County (Virginia's northernmost at the time) returned Lincoln's best result – he polled over 40% of the vote there and finished in second place (Lincoln polled only eight votes fewer than Breckinridge). The incumbent president, James Buchanan, like his predecessor, Franklin Pierce, was a Northern Democrat with sympathies for the South. United States presidential election of 1860. National Archives and Records Administration. Relevance. Lincoln won the Electoral College with less than 40 percent of the popular vote nationwide by carrying states above the Mason–Dixon line and north of the Ohio River, plus the states of California and Oregon in the Far West. Representatives: 1932 to 2010", United States presidential election of 1860, 1860 election: State-by-state Popular vote results, United States Presidential Election of 1860 in, Abraham Lincoln: Original Letters and Manuscripts, 1860, Overview of Constitutional Union National Convention, Presidential Election of 1860: A Resource Guide, Bill Bigelow, "The Election of 1860 Role Play", elections in which the winner lost the popular vote, Notable third party performances in United States elections, South Carolina 1954 (Democratic Write-In), Third party officeholders in the United States, Third-party members of the United States House of Representatives, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1860_United_States_presidential_election&oldid=999126219, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles needing additional references from November 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Pages using bar box without float left or float right, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Abraham Lincoln, former representative from Illinois, Edward Bates, former representative from Missouri, John McLean, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, William L. Dayton, former senator from New Jersey, James Guthrie, former treasury secretary from Kentucky, Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, senator from Virginia, Daniel S. Dickinson, former senator from New York, John C. Breckinridge, Vice President of the United States, Jefferson Davis, senator from Mississippi, John J. Crittenden, senator from Kentucky, Edward Everett, former senator from Massachusetts, William A. Graham, former senator from North Carolina, William C. Rives, former senator from Virginia, Gerrit Smith, former representative from New York. Abraham Lincoln of Illinois was the candidate of the generally antislavery Republican Party. At the Democratic National Convention held in Institute Hall in Charleston, South Carolina, in April 1860, 50 Southern Democrats walked out over a platform dispute, led by the extreme pro-slavery "Fire-Eater" William Lowndes Yancey and the Alabama delegation: following them were the entire delegations of Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas, three of the four delegates from Arkansas, and one of the three delegates from Delaware. Lincoln's main opponent in the North was Douglas, who finished second in several states but won only the slave state of Missouri and three electors from the free state of New Jersey. All three states had been carried by Buchanan in 1856. Lincoln was the second President-elect to poll no votes in any state which had a popular vote (the first was John Quincy Adams, who polled no ballots in the popular votes of two states in the election of 1824, although that was a unique election in which there were four major candidates, none of whom distributed ballots in every state). [39] Thus, except for running mate Everett's home state of Massachusetts, and California, Bell received even less support in the free states than did Breckinridge, and consequently came in last in the national popular vote, at 12.62%. [9][10], Senator Robert M. T. Hunter from Virginia, Former Senator Daniel S. Dickinson from New York. He won 45 to 47 percent in Maryland, Tennessee and North Carolina and canvassed respectably with 36 to 40 percent in Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. Secessionists threw their support behind Breckinridge in an attempt either to force the anti-Republican candidates to coordinate their electoral votes or throw the election into the House of Representatives, where the selection of the president would be made by the representatives elected in 1858, before the Republican majorities in both House and Senate achieved in 1860 were seated in the new 37th Congress. He finished second in the Electoral College with 72 votes, carrying eleven of fifteen slave states (including South Carolina, whose electors were chosen by the state legislature, not popular vote). Lincoln took office on 4 March 1861. [46], Bertram Wyatt-Brown argues that secessionists desired independence as necessary for their honor. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Abraham Lincoln, photograph by Mathew Brady. The building had been the First Presbyterian Meeting House (Two Towers Church) on Fayette Street, between Calvert and North Street, demolished before 1866 and occupied by the United States Courthouse. The 3 Douglas electors were elected and 4 of those pledged to Lincoln. Flag banner promoting Abraham Lincoln for the presidency in 1860. After Lincoln’s election seven Southern states seceded, setting the stage for the American Civil War. Results of the American presidential election, 1860, How the Dred Scott Decision Affected the U.S. Election of 1860, United States: Secession and the politics of the Civil War, 1860–65. Douglas, a moderate on the slavery issue who favored "popular sovereignty", was ahead on the first ballot, but was 56½ votes short of the secure the nomination. A wealthy slaveowner from Tennessee who served in both the House and the Senate, he ran for U.S. President against Lincoln, Breckinridge, and Douglas in 1860 with the Constitutional Union Party on a moderate pro-slavery platform. While the Democrats convened again at the Front Street Theater in Baltimore, Maryland, on June 18, 110 Southern delegates (led by "Fire-Eaters") boycotted the convention or walked out after the convention informed them they would not adopt a resolution supporting extending slavery into territories whose voters did not want it. When the Democrats reconvened in Baltimore, they rejoined (except South Carolina and Florida, who had stayed in Richmond). Among the slave states, the three states with the highest voter turnouts voted the most one-sided. Lincoln was not unknown; he had gained prominence in the Lincoln–Douglas debates, and had served as a house representative from Illinois. Who ran for presidential as a republican in 1860 A. stephen Douglas B. Abraham Lincoln C. jefferson Davis D. john C. Breckinridge Former Senator Edward Everett from Massachusetts, Former Senator William A. Graham from North Carolina, Former Senator William C. Rives from Virginia, The Constitutional Union Party was formed by remnants of both the defunct Know Nothing and Whig Parties who were unwilling to join either the Republicans or the Democrats. The results in the South are instructive in understanding the deep sectional divide. The election was the first of six consecutive victories for the Republican Party. Baltimore's Institute Hall, not be confused with Charleston's Institute Hall also used by the walk-out delegations. He gained great notability with his February 1860 Cooper Union speech, which may have ensured him the nomination. The split in the Democratic party is sometimes held responsible for Lincoln's victory[34] despite the fact that Lincoln won the election with less than 40% of the popular vote, as much of the anti-Republican vote was "wasted" in Southern states in which no ballots for Lincoln were circulated. Four men ran for president in 1860: Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, John Bell, and John Breckinridge. The 1864 election occurred during the Civil War; none of the states loyal to the Confederate States of America participated. stephen douglas abraham lincoln jefferson davis john c. breckinridge - the answers to estudyassistant.com But the seven Lincoln-Douglas Debates they held across Illinois were mentioned in newspapers around the country, raising Lincoln’s political profile. Abraham Lincoln: Abraham Lincoln won two presidential elections, first in 1860 and then again in 1864. The Republican victory resulted from the concentration of votes in the free states, which together controlled a majority of the presidential electors. The name of its presidential candidate, Abraham Lincoln, an ardent opponent of slavery, would not… Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckinridge of the Southern Democrats, and John Bell of the Constitutional Union Party ran all against Lincoln in 1860. In his letter, Smith donated $50 to pay for the printing of ballots in the various states. where he received 1,929 votes (1.15 percent of the total). The standoff continued until mid-April, when Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered Confederate troops to bombard and capture Fort Sumter. Six candidates were nominated: Stephen A. Douglas from Illinois, James Guthrie from Kentucky, Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter from Virginia, Joseph Lane from Oregon, Daniel S. Dickinson from New York, and Andrew Johnson from Tennessee, while three other candidates, Isaac Toucey from Connecticut, James Pearce from Maryland, and Jefferson Davis from Mississippi (the future president of the Confederate States) also received votes. U.S. presidential election of 1860, American election in which Republican Abraham Lincoln defeated Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, and Constitutional Union candidate John Bell. It should be further noted that, prior to introduction of the secret ballot in the 1880s, the concept of ballot access did not exist in the sense it does today: there was no standardized state-issued ballot for a candidate to "appear" on. [citation needed] However, Chase's firm antislavery stance made him popular with the radical Republicans. In order to receive any votes, a candidate (or his party) had to have ballots printed and organize a group of electors pledged to that candidate. He withdrew from the race on August 16, and urged the formation of a Unified "Union" ticket in opposition to Lincoln. He had not yet announced his intentions to run, but it was superb speech. [nb 2] The four states that were admitted to the Confederacy after Fort Sumter held almost half its population, and voted a narrow combined majority of 53 percent for the pro-union candidates. If the President (and, by extension, the appointed federal officials in the South, such as district attorneys, marshals, postmasters, and judges) opposed slavery, it might collapse. Lincoln did not win any votes in any state that would form the Confederacy, with the exception of Virginia, where he garnered only 1 percent of the total vote (Douglas won slightly less than 10 percent). Lincoln's combination of a moderate stance on slavery, long support for economic issues, his western origins, and strong oratory proved to be exactly what the delegates wanted in a president. After his nomination, Lincoln put aside his law practice and ran a stay-at-home campaign, in which he made no stump speeches, though he did give full time to the direction of his campaign. On April 20, 1860, the party held what it termed a national convention to nominate Houston for president on the San Jacinto Battlefield in Texas. Entering the convention, Sen. William H. Seward of New York was considered the favourite for the nomination, and on the first ballot he led Abraham Lincoln, who had been defeated in Illinois in 1858 for the U.S. Senate by Douglas, as well as a host of other candidates. The election of Lincoln led to the secession of seven states in the South before the inauguration and the outright secession of four more (plus the partial secession of two others) once the Civil War began with the Battle of Fort Sumter. By the time of Lincoln’s inauguration in March, seven Southern states had seceded, and barely a month after Lincoln became president, the country became engaged in civil war. The slate of electors were pledged to 3 different candidates: 18 to Douglas, 10 to Bell, and 7 to Breckinridge. [18], In Ohio, a slate of presidential electors pledged to Smith ran with the name of the Union Party. Favorite Answer. [3], Chase, a former Democrat, had alienated many of the former Whigs by his coalition with the Democrats in the late 1840s. In federal elections from the 1870s to the 1890s, the parties were in rough balance—except in the South, which became solidly Democratic. 10, Dubin, Michael J., United States Presidential Elections, 1788–1860: The Official Results by County and State, McFarland & Company, 2002, p. 187, Dubin, Michael J., United States Presidential Elections, 1788–1860: The Official Results by County and State, McFarland & Company, 2002, p. 188, United States presidential election, 1860, primary catalyst of the American Civil War, each territory to decide itself on the status of slavery, Learn how and when to remove this template message, 1848 presidential nominee of the original Liberty Party, National Archives and Records Administration, 1860 and 1861 United States House of Representatives elections, 1860 and 1861 United States Senate elections, American election campaigns in the 19th century, History of the United States Democratic Party, History of the United States Republican Party, "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections", "Abraham Lincoln: Campaigns and Elections" (Miller Center, 2019), "Proceedings of the Republican national convention held at Chicago, May 16, 17 and 18, 1860 : Republican National Convention (2nd : 1860 : Chicago, Ill.) : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive", http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/10/how-and-where-lincoln-won/, Getting the Message Out! Former Representative Abraham Lincolnfrom Illinois, Former Representative Edward Bates from Missouri, Former Senator William L. Dayton from New Jersey, The Republican National Convention met in mid-May 1860, after the Democrats had been forced to adjourn their convention in Charleston. A group of former Whigs and Know Nothings formed the Constitutional Union Party, which sought to avoid secession by pushing aside the issue of slavery. Lincoln won in every state he carried in 1860 except New Jersey, and also carried a state won four years earlier by Stephen Douglas (Missouri), one carried by John C. Breckinridge (Maryland) and all three newly admitted states (Kansas, Nevada and West Virginia). [3], The conservative Bates was an unlikely candidate, but found support from Horace Greely, who sought any chance to defeat Seward, whom he now had a bitter feud with. If Fred Durst ran for state legislature, without a popular vote ) of Harvard University and of. 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