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[177] Through Qatar Foundation, the country has built Education City, a campus which hosts local branches of the Weill Cornell Medical College, Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, Northwestern's Medill School of Journalism, Texas A&M's School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University School of the Arts and other Western institutions. [181] Hospitals have also been bombed by the Saudis and those operating with them. Qatar's proved reserves of gas are the third-largest in the world, exceeding 250 trillion cubic feet (7,000 km³). As a result, it is the richest state per-capita in the world. [266] The QMA also sponsors artistic events abroad, such as major exhibitions by Takahashi Murakami in Versailles (2010) and Damien Hirst in London (2012). [22] Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development, having the third-highest HDI in the Arab world after United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. President Mohamed Morsi via diplomatic support and the state-owned Al Jazeera network until he was overthrown by a military coup d'état in July 2013 following mass protests against his rule. However, the construction work in country was expected to only take the available 37,000 hotel rooms to 70,000 by the end of 2021. There are currently seven newspapers in circulation in Qatar, with four being published in Arabic and three being published in English. Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Kuwait regarding relations between the United ... Exchange of Notes concerning the Termination of Special Treaty Relations ... Northern Ireland and the State of Qatar, 3 September 1971, A Treaty of Friendship and an Exchange of Notes, each entered into on 3 September 1971. Qatar is an oil-rich peninsula sharing border with the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia, strategically located near major petroleum deposits. The joint incursion, in addition to the Qatari counter-attack, prompted British Political Resident, Colonel Lewis Pelly to impose a settlement in 1868. Mass-transit options, such as a Doha metro, light-rail system and more extensive bus networks, are also under development to ease road congestion. In addition, the forum has featured the Middle East Economic Future conference since 2006. [174], The Qatar Armed Forces are the military forces of Qatar. [42] Among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. Ashghal works in tandem with the Urban Planning and Development Authority (UPDA), the body that designed the transportation master plan, instituted in March 2006 and running to 2025. Qatar's defense expenditures accounted for approximately 4.2% of gross national product in 1993, and 1.5% of gross domestic product in 2010, the most recent year available in the SIPRI statistical database. [49] The region was not limited to Qatar; it also included Bahrain, Tarout Island, Al-Khatt, and Al-Hasa. The research put Qatar's GDP at $182bn in 2012 and said it had climbed to an all-time high due to soaring gas exports and high oil prices. Each stage covers a distance of more than 100 km, though the time trial usually is a shorter distance. [249] Sharia law is the main source of Qatari legislation according to Qatar's Constitution. It has been reported that journalists practice self-censorship, particularly in regards to the government and ruling family of Qatar. Hamad International Airport is the international airport of Doha. Part IA & IB. [304][305], In November 2002, emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani created The Supreme Education Council. [38], In 1995, Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani seized control of the country from his father Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, with the support of the armed forces and cabinet, as well as neighbouring states[88] and France. [165] Qatar donated £88.5million in funds to finance recovery and reconstruction in Darfur. [129][134] No explanation was given for the ban,[129][130] though speculation included encouraging a more pious image before a significant election and rumours of a financial dispute between the government and resort developers. Qatar, independent emirate on the west coast of the Persian Gulf. This positioning tells us that Qatar is located above the equator. [37], In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced [ˈqɑtˤɑr], while in the local dialect it is [ˈɡitˤar]. With no income tax, Qatar (along with Bahrain) is one of the countries with the lowest tax rates in the world. [25][26] In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a significant power in the Arab world both through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, and reportedly supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring. The same study published that Qatar Investment Authority (QIA), with assets of $115bn, was ranked 12th among the richest sovereign wealth funds in the world. [2] The current Council is composed entirely of members appointed by the Emir,[2] as no legislative elections have been held since 1970 when there were partial elections to the body. [44] Qatar played a role in the commercial activity of the Sasanids, contributing at least two commodities: precious pearls and purple dye. "[275] Journalists are also subject to prosecution for insulting Islam. Notable among these include the Darfur Agreement. Along with Qatar, the Arabian Peninsula is made up of Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Kuwait, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). [32][33] A century later, Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, referring to it as Catara. Among these, Indians are the largest community, numbering 650,000 in 2017,[19] followed by 350,000 Nepalis, 280,000 Bangladeshis, 145,000 Sri Lankans, and 125,000 Pakistanis. [289], The Guardian, a British national daily newspaper, produced a short documentary named "Abuse and exploitation of migrant workers preparing emirate for 2022". [96] Qatar is pursuing an Afghan peace deal and in January 2012 the Afghan Taliban said they were setting up a political office in Qatar to facilitate talks. [71] The Bahraini hostilities were in violation of the Perpetual Truce of Peace and Friendship of 1861. [223], Established in 2005, Qatar Investment Authority is the country's sovereign wealth fund, specializing in foreign investment. Orders in 2013 for 62 tanks and 24 self-propelled guns from Germany were followed in 2014 by a number of other contracts, including 24 combat helicopters and 3 early-warning-and-control aircraft from the US, and 2 tanker aircraft from Spain. [93][94] In 2011, Qatar joined NATO operations in Libya and reportedly armed Libyan opposition groups. It is part of the Arabian Peninsula. [144] The cable suggested that Qatar's security service was "hesitant to act against known terrorists out of concern for appearing to be aligned with the U.S. and provoking reprisals". 7. [276] The Gulf Center for Human Rights has stated that the law is a threat to freedom of speech and has called for certain articles of the law to be revoked.[277]. [70], Although Qatar was considered a dependency of Bahrain, the Al Khalifa faced opposition from the local tribes. In 2010, Qatar won the rights to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, making it the first country in the Middle East to be selected to host the tournament. [157][158] Qatar offered Egypt a $7.5 billion loan during the year he was in power. Qatar’s wild mammals are hard to spot, most of them being small and nocturnal. [101] This has resulted in increased Qatari economic and military ties with Turkey and Iran. [216] It relies heavily on foreign labor to grow its economy, to the extent that migrant workers compose 86% of the population and 94% of the workforce. Education City is also home to a fully accredited international Baccalaureate school, Qatar Academy. [79], By the Anglo-Turkish Convention of 1913, the Ottomans agreed to renounce their claim to Qatar and withdraw their garrison from Doha. It has a population of 956,460 (2015). [40] It has been suggested that Qatar is the earliest known site of shellfish dye production, owing to a Kassite purple dye industry which existed on the coast. Qatari law does not permit the establishment of political bodies or trade unions. With a fast-expanding population and substantial economic growth over the past decade, a reliable and extensive transportation network is becoming increasingly necessary within Qatar. The Souq is within walking distance from Doha Corniche. Flogging is employed as a punishment for alcohol consumption or illicit sexual relations. [311][312] As part of its national development strategy, Qatar has outlined a 10-year strategic plan to improve the level of education. The presence of the large Al Udeid Air Base, operated by the United States and several other UN nations, provides a guaranteed source of defense and national security. [117] Only Muslims considered medically fit are liable to have such sentences carried out. Qatar is located on a peninsula on the Arabian Gulf. The Al Khalifa imposed their authority over Bahrain and retained their jurisdiction over Zubarah. [95] It is also currently a major funder of weapons for rebel groups in the Syrian civil war. In 1825, the House of Thani was established with Sheikh Mohammed bin Thani as the first leader. The government of Qatar has investments and properties all around the world. With knowledge of the population and the total area, the population density can be configured. The Ottomans and Egyptians assaulted the western front, while the Al Khalifa in Bahrain and the Omanis launched an attack against the eastern front. Ranked by population, Qatar is the 148th largest country of the 195 countries in total. [226][227], The country has no taxes on non-companies,[228] but authorities have announced plans to levy taxes on junk food and luxury items. [298] "New cybercrime law could have serious consequences for press freedom in Qatar", "Qatar: New Cyber Crime Law poses real threat to Freedom of Expression", "Fox Sports brings you everything you need to know – and a few things you don't – about the Asian Cup", "Qatar stun Japan with 3–1 win to be crowned Asian Cup champions", "Russia, Qatar win 2018 and 2022 World Cups", "Europe's Top Leagues protest against 2022 winter World Cup in Qatar", "Fifa wants Qatar 2022 postponed to Winter", "BBC Sport – Qatar World Cup: '£3m payments to officials' corruption claim", "World Cup inquiry clears Qatar but criticises English FA", "Qatar World Cup: migrants wait a year to be paid for building offices", Death toll among Qatar's 2022 World Cup workers revealed, "Qatar hits back at allegations of bribery over 2022 World Cup", "Football fans to sleep in Glastonbury-like tented villages at Qatar World Cup", "Cazorla dazzles as football arrives at Education City", "The Education City contracts: A case study from VCU in Qatar", "In the occasion of Literacy Arab Day, Qatar has the Lowest Illiteracy Rates in 2012", "SPECIAL REPORT: UNIVERSITY STUDIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST", "Key findings – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development", "Qatar National Development Strategy 2011~2016", Union of Arab National Olympic Committees, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries,, Arabic-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, States and territories established in 1971, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles lacking reliable references from June 2017, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2018, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2013, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 18:41. Between 1760 and 1971, Qatar sought formal protection from the high transitory powers of the Ottomans, British, the Al-Khalifas from Bahrain, the Arabians, and the Wahhabis from Saudi Arabia. An exhaustive array of games & activities can be found here for all ages and preferences, where guests can have fun, socialize, compete and develop team-building skills with colleagues, friends, and family. [124], Stoning is a legal punishment in Qatar,[125] and apostasy and homosexuality are crimes punishable by the death penalty, however, the death penalty hasn't been carried out for either. Project highlights in this segment include the multibillion-dollar Doha Expressway and the Qatar Bahrain Causeway, which will connect Qatar to Bahrain and Saudi Arabia and is considered a milestone in regional interconnectivity. Owen Gibson and Pete Pattisson (23 December 2014). [23] Qatar is a World Bank high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves. [117] Article 88 of Qatar's criminal code declares that the penalty for adultery is 100 lashes,[118] and in 2006, a Filipino woman was sentenced that punishment. As of 2013[update], the holdings were valued at $100 billion in assets. [131][132] Qatari officials have also indicated a willingness to allow alcohol in "fan zones" at the 2022 FIFA World Cup. [168] Saudi Arabia explained the move to be a necessary measure in protecting the kingdom's security. [64], In 1766, members of the Al Khalifa family of the Utub tribal confederation migrated from Kuwait to Zubarah in Qatar. In some cases, Sharia-based family courts treat a female's testimony as being worth half that of a man. [114][115] Sharia law is applied to family law, inheritance, and several criminal acts (including adultery, robbery and murder). Qatar allowed coalition troops from Canada to use the country as an airbase to launch aircraft on CAP duty and also permitted air forces from the United States and France to operate in its territories. Al Jazeera initially launched in 1996 as an Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel of the same name, but has since expanded into a global network of several speciality TV channels known collectively as the Al Jazeera Media Network. Originally, written poetry was the most common form of expression. These are salt pans that can be found on the border with the Arabian Peninsula. Senate hearing has the answer", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2011: Qatar, "US State Dept's Country Political Profile – Qatar", "Qatar shows how to manage a modern monarchy", "Population of Qatar by nationality – 2017 report", "GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) | Data", "GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) | Data", "2019 Human Development Index Ranking | Human Development Reports", "Indices & Data | Human Development Reports", "IFES Election Guide – Elections: Qatar Referendum Apr 29 2003", "Tiny Kingdom's Huge Role in Libya Draws Concern", "Qatar admits sending hundreds of troops to support Libya rebels", "Middle Powers: Squeezed out or Adaptive? [262] It is observed in remembrance of Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani's succession to the throne and his subsequent unification of the country's various tribes. They won all seven of their matches, conceding only a single goal throughout the tournament. worsened longstanding tensions with Saudi Arabia, the country's alleged support of groups they considered to be extremist, Mohammed bin Abdulrahman bin Jassim Al Thani, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan,, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 50th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic, Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs (Qatar), Collecting practices of the Al-Thani Family, Al-Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, Khalifa International Tennis and Squash Complex, FIVB Volleyball Men's Club World Championship, FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship, Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, Northwestern's Medill School of Journalism, Virginia Commonwealth University School of the Arts, Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2018 – Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", "List of left- & right-driving countries – World Standards", Qatar Airways: the Art of Flight Redefined, "How do you say 'Qatar'? Qatar's media was classified as "not free" in the 2014 Freedom of the Press report by Freedom House. Qatar can be considered to be located on the Arabian Peninsula. In 1867, the Al Khalifa, along with the ruler of Abu Dhabi, sent a massive naval force to Al Wakrah in an effort to crush the Qatari rebels. On 3 September 1971, those "special treaty arrangements" that were "inconsistent with full international responsibility as a sovereign and independent state" were terminated. [295] Further, in 2014, Qatar won the world championship in men's 3x3 basketball. The Emir announced Qatar's plans to hold its first national legislative elections in 2013. Growing numbers of foreign-educated Qataris, including many educated in the US, are returning home to assume key positions formerly occupied by expatriates. The country is situated on a peninsula that extends from the Arabian Peninsula approximately 160 km (99 mi) north into the Persian (Arab) Gulf, it is bordered by Saudi Arabia.Qatar shares maritime borders with Bahrain, Iran, and the United Arab Emirates. It occupies a small peninsula itself (Qatar Peninsula) and is surrounded by the waters of the Persian Gulf. It’s perfect for either a couple hours’ escape from your transit or casual browsing, dining or people watching. "[161] The Foreign Minister of Qatar has denied supporting Hamas, saying that the country "[does] not support Hamas[,] but support[s] the Palestinians. To the southeast lies the Khor al Adaid ("Inland Sea"), an area of rolling sand dunes surrounding an inlet of the Persian Gulf. 12 of 2006 concerning the Cancelled Municipality of Mesaieed", "National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. "[180] Many civilians have been killed and the large parts of the infrastructure in this region is now destroyed. The Qatar Distribution Company (a subsidiary of Qatar Airways) is permitted to import alcohol and pork; it operates the one and only liquor store in the country, which also sells pork to holders of liquor licences. [163], Qatar has hosted academic, religious, political, and economic conferences. [77], In February 1893, Mehmed Hafiz Pasha arrived in Qatar in the interests of seeking unpaid taxes and accosting Jassim bin Mohammed's opposition to proposed Ottoman administrative reforms. After Mehmed declined an offer to release the captives for a fee of 10,000 liras, he ordered a column of approximately 200 troops to advance towards Jassim's Al Wajbah Fort under the command of Yusuf Effendi, thus signalling the start of the Battle of Al Wajbah. Megapolis Entertainment Center is a state-of-the-art indoor family entertainment destination located in the Pearl Qatar’s Medina Centrale. Since 2008, Christians have been allowed to build churches on ground donated by the government,[251] though foreign missionary activity is officially discouraged. [85] The treaty reserved foreign affairs and defence to the United Kingdom but allowed internal autonomy. To control the influx of expatriate workers, Qatar has tightened the administration of its foreign manpower programmes over the past several years. Qatar is located in the Middle East. [91] In March 2005, a suicide bombing killed a British teacher from Dorset called Jonathan Adams[92] at the Doha Players Theatre, shocking the country, which had not previously experienced acts of terrorism. [193], In October 2015 Qatar's Emir signed into law new reforms to the country's sponsorship system, with the new law taking effect within one year. Qatar ranked number 23 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, unchanged from 2013. [2] Legislative elections have been postponed until at least 2019. [240] The population has tripled in the decade to 2011, up from just over 600,000 people in 2001, leaving Qatari nationals as less than 15% of the total population. [214] Corporate law mandates that Qatari nationals must hold 51% of any venture in the Emirate. [212], Before the discovery of oil, the economy of the Qatari region focused on fishing and pearl hunting. Portugal went on to seize a significant portion of Eastern Arabia in 1521. [53] In the 8th century, it started benefiting from its commercially strategic position in the Persian Gulf and went on to become a centre of pearl trading. [84] Oil exports began in 1949, and oil revenues became the country's main source of revenue, the pearl trade having gone into decline. As of 2014[update], it has investments around the world in Valentino, Siemens, Printemps, Harrods, The Shard, Barclays Bank, Heathrow Airport, Paris Saint-Germain F.C., Volkswagen Group, Royal Dutch Shell, Bank of America, Tiffany, Agricultural Bank of China, Sainsbury's, BlackBerry,[225] and Santander Brasil. [54][55], Substantial development in the pearling industry around the Qatari Peninsula occurred during the Abbasid era. Said bin Sultan, ruler of Muscat, capitalised on this opportunity and raided the Wahhabi garrisons on the eastern coast, setting fire to the fort in Zubarah. Hamad Port is Qatar's main seaport, located south of Doha in the Umm Al Houl area. [280], Association football is the most popular sport in Qatar, both in terms of players and spectators. The Qatari peninsula protrudes 160 kilometres (100 mi) into the Persian Gulf, north of Saudi Arabia. [80] Oil reserves were first discovered in 1939. The program encompasses the STEM fields and languages. [155] It is at a magical meridian that breathes in both the northern and eastern hemispheres. The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf in the east of the country, North of Al Wakrah and South of Al Khor. [63] Having retained a negligible military presence in the area, the Ottomans were expelled by the Bani Khalid tribe in 1670. As driving is the primary mode of transport in Qatar, the road network is a major focus of the plan. led the Muslim conquest of Persia which resulted in the fall of the Sasanian Empire. The use of the death penalty is rare and no state executions have taken place in Qatar since 2003. Qatar's culture is similar to other countries in Eastern Arabia, being significantly influenced by Islam. [38] Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula. Located On The World Map – Qatar is located in the Middle East region, on the shore of the Persian Gulf. Map; Longitude & Latitude [129][130] In December 2011, however, Pearl restaurants were told to stop selling alcohol. According to article 46 of the press law "The Emir of the state of Qatar shall not be criticised and no statement can be attributed to him unless under a written permission from the manager of his office. None of its 2 million residents live below the poverty line and less than 1% are unemployed.[231]. Qatar is located in the Arabian Peninsula, Middle East and lies between latitudes 25° 30' N, and longitudes 51° 15' E. [19] Islam is the official religion of Qatar. 1915' [1000] (1155/1782), p. 1001. [185][186] Qatar retains the death penalty, mainly for threats against national security such as terrorism. Taking only the entire area into consideration, Qatar is the 158th largest country across the globe. Barack Obama describes 'rough patches' with Michelle [74], Under military and political pressure from the governor of the Ottoman Vilayet of Baghdad, Midhat Pasha, the ruling Al Thani tribe submitted to Ottoman rule in 1871. Along with Qatar, the Arabian Peninsula is made up of Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Kuwait, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). [207] A total of 142 fungal species have been recorded from Qatar. [188], Under the provisions of Qatar's sponsorship law, sponsors have the unilateral power to cancel workers' residency permits, deny workers' ability to change employers, report a worker as "absconded" to police authorities, and deny permission to leave the country. The country Qatar is located on the continent of Asia. Qatar is mentioned in 13th-century Muslim scholar Yaqut al-Hamawi's book, Mu'jam Al-Buldan, which alludes to the Qataris' fine striped woven cloaks and their skills in improvement and finishing of spears. [60] Qatar's pearls provided the kingdom with one of its main sources of income. In addition, two Canadian institutions, the College of the North Atlantic (headquarters in Newfoundland and Labrador) and the University of Calgary, have inaugurated campuses in Doha. [176] Qatari special forces have been trained by France and other Western countries, and are believed to possess considerable skill. [58] More than two-fifths of Qatar’s population lives within the city’s limits. Qatar's first demographic records date back to 1892, and were conducted by Ottoman governors in the region. [243], Islam is Qatar's predominant religion and is the official status although not the only religion practiced in the country. [138] The history of Qatar's alliances provides insight into the basis of their policy. [144], Qatar has mixed relations with its neighbours in the Persian Gulf region. [71] After the introduction of the Japanese cultured pearl onto the world market in the 1920s and 1930s, Qatar's pearling industry crashed. The country's native population is relatively small. [73] However, Qatar was not officially recognised as a British protectorate until 1916. Its biggest cities and towns include Doha, Khor, Umm Bab and Abū Samrah. He resigned as kaymakam and stopped paying taxes in August 1892. With only 54.68 miles of water areas, the remaining 6780.32 square miles are made up of land. [99], Qatar participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings.[100]. In December 2019, the Qatari World Cup officials approached the Glastonbury Festival chiefs and the organizers of the Coachella festival to plan huge desert campsites for thousands of football fans. This was done in order to facilitate peace negotiations and with the support of other countries including the United States and Afghanistan. Like most things, it is found in the capital, Doha, and has an observation deck on the 62nd storey. Qatar commissioned international law firm DLA Piper to produce a report investigating the immigrant labour system. Since 2002, Qatar has hosted the annual Tour of Qatar, a cycling race in six stages. [14][15][16][17][18] Its sole land border is with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. Qatar's winning bid for the 2022 World Cup was greeted enthusiastically in the Persian Gulf region as it was the first time a country in the Middle East had been selected to host the tournament. [133], Until 2011, restaurants on the Pearl-Qatar (a man-made island near Doha) were allowed to serve alcoholic drinks. 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